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Saint Lucia

Capital

Castries

Territory

610km²

Population (2020)

183,629

GDP Total (2020)

1.703B USD

GDP Per Capita (2020)

9,276 USD

Icome Group

Upper middle income

Convention Implementation

30.9
Core-deficient

Western Hemisphere Ranking

60.7

31st of 31 countries

Caribbean Ranking

54.7

11th of 11 countries

Corruption Resilience

65.6
Moderately Resilient

Western Hemisphere Ranking

54.4

7th of 31 countries

Caribbean Ranking

57.9

4th of 11 countries

Convention Implementation

Score by thematic sections and measures

Prevention

Core-deficient
26.5

Western Hemisphere 46.3

Caribbean 41.7

Standards of Conduct

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 42.8

Caribbean 24.8

Enforcement of Standards of Conduct

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 50.6

Caribbean 33.4

Training of Public Officials

Core-deficient
28.9

Western Hemisphere 36.8

Caribbean 27.4

Asset and Conflicts of Interests Declarations

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 42.3

Caribbean 27.9

Transparency in Government Contracting

Core-deficient
14.8

Western Hemisphere 33.1

Caribbean 22.9

Elimination of Favorable Tax Treatment

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 47.1

Caribbean 31.6

Oversight Bodies

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 36.0

Caribbean 34.3

Measures to Deter Domestic and Foreign Bribery

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 36.7

Caribbean 20.0

Encouraging Participation by Civil Society

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 43.0

Caribbean 21.3

Study of Other Prevention Measures

Core-deficient
35.9

Western Hemisphere 44.9

Caribbean 42.8

Criminalization and law enforcement

Core-deficient
33.0

Western Hemisphere 61.1

Caribbean 55.1

Protection of Those who Report Acts of Corruption

Not Implemented
3.1

Western Hemisphere 30.7

Caribbean 17.8

Scope

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 67.7

Caribbean 53.8

Jurisdiction: Offense-in-Territory

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 74.6

Caribbean 60.0

Jurisdiction: Offense-by-National

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 51.9

Caribbean 27.3

Jurisdiction: Offender-in-Territory

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 58.8

Caribbean 39.5

Passive Public Bribery

Core-deficient
39.0

Western Hemisphere 55.8

Caribbean 55.8

Active Public Bribery

Core-deficient
39.0

Western Hemisphere 56.4

Caribbean 55.5

Abuse of Functions

Core-deficient
39.0

Western Hemisphere 47.0

Caribbean 37.6

Money Laundering

Core-deficient
39.0

Western Hemisphere 55.8

Caribbean 58.5

Participation and Attempt

Core-deficient
39.0

Western Hemisphere 58.4

Caribbean 54.2

Active Foreign Bribery

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 39.0

Caribbean 34.7

Illicit Enrichment

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 54.7

Caribbean 38.9

Use of State Property

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 79.5

Caribbean 66.9

Illicit Acquisition of a Benefit

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 52.1

Caribbean 36.6

Public Embezzlement

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 77.6

Caribbean 64.4

Passive Foreign Bribery

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 25.6

Caribbean 23.4

Private Bribery

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 22.7

Caribbean 21.8

Private Embezzlement

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 64.7

Caribbean 59.5

Obstruction of Justice

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 71.4

Caribbean 61.1

Liability of Legal Persons

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 61.3

Caribbean 62.2

Statute of Limitations

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 79.6

Caribbean 68.

Prosecution, Adjudication and Sanctions

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 69.5

Caribbean 63.2

Consequences and Compensation

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 70.3

Caribbean 60.4

Cooperation With Law Enforcement

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 72.2

Caribbean 66.3

Asset Recovery

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 66.4

Caribbean 59.6

International cooperation

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 68.9

Caribbean 60.9

Assistance Without Criminalization

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 79.8

Caribbean 69.8

Inclusion in Extradition Treaties

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 55.1

Caribbean 54.5

Convention as Legal Basis for Extradition

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 47.5

Caribbean 31.7

Automatic Application Without Treaty

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 52.7

Caribbean 49.1

Prosecution Without Extradition

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 57.2

Caribbean 56.6

Custody

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 73.4

Caribbean 72.8

Assistance

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 58.0

Caribbean 50.2

Impossibility of Claiming Bank Secrecy

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 84.0

Caribbean 71.3

Limited Use of Information

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 82.6

Caribbean 71.1

Nature of Act

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 84.3

Caribbean 75.7

Designate Central Authorities

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 75.9

Caribbean 53.9

Responsibilities of Central Authorities

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 71.5

Caribbean 67.1

Communication Between Central Authorities

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 67.3

Caribbean 50.8

Special Investigative Techniques

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 56.9

Caribbean 48.5

Technical Cooperation

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 62.8

Caribbean 40.7

Anti-corruption conventions timeline

200320042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017201820192020

Conventions

  • IACAC - Inter-American Convention Against Corruption
  • UNCAC - United Nations Convention against Corruption
  • OECD Anti-Bribery Convention

Key events

  • Signed
  • Ratifed / acceded
  • Review rounds

Convention Implementation Analysis

Saint Lucia ratified the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC) on January 23, 2003. It is a State Party to the Follow-Up Mechanism for the Implementation of the Inter-American Convention against Corruption (MESICIC) since April 4th, 2018. Accordingly, Saint Lucia has undergone one round of review under MESICIC, covering the provisions selected for review within the framework of the second and fifth rounds. The country also acceded to the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) on November 25, 2011; however, there is no available information concerning the country’s participation in its review mechanism. Saint Lucia’s record in implementing its commitments to IACAC exhibits only failures.

With an overall score of 30.9, the measures adopted place the country at the lowest level of compliance with international norms, behind Suriname (31.7), Dominica (38.4), and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (46.7). While implementation efforts may be said to be well distributed among the available sections—preventive and criminalization—the few preventive measures reviewed, the lack of measures concerning international cooperation, and the lack of progress in any single measure reflect a general state of deficit.

Regarding the prevention of corruption, the country’s absence from the MESICIC until 2018 does not allow for the assessment of most preventive measures. However, the three reviewed measures—transparency in government contracting (14.8), the training of public officials (28.9), and the study of preventive measures related to equitable compensation (35.9)—produce an average section score of 26.6 (“core-deficient”). Concerning government contracting, the report of the fifth round of review of MESICIC (adopted in 2020) highlights several deficits in the legislative framework and institutional mechanisms, including the fact that “although the Public Service Commission may remove persons from office under its purview, the legislative framework does not enable, as the oversight body for government hiring in the Public Service, to revoke and, where appropriate, take corrective measures, in relation to appointments that have been found to be irregular, improper or made through fraudulent means.” Similarly, “[w]ith respect to the internal and external audit, control and oversight of the government system for public procurement, the Committee notes that the legislative framework in place does not explicitly contemplate such control and monitoring mechanisms.”

In terms of criminalization and law enforcement, Saint Lucia shows equally poor results, with all measures within this section classified as core-deficient or unimplemented. These are: the protection of those who report acts of corruption (i.e., whistleblower protection) (3.1); and the criminalization of active and passive public bribery, abuse of functions, money laundering, and extended forms of involvement in the commission of corruption offenses such as participation and attempt, all of which receive a score of 39.1. Concerning whistleblower protection, MESICIC declines to make a further assessment of the country’s actions due to the lack a comprehensive legislative framework, pointing out that “[a]lthough citizens may report acts of corruption to the Royal Saint Lucia Police Force and the Integrity Commission, these mechanisms are inadequate for promoting the purposes of the Convention.” Saint Lucia’s record in promoting and engaging with international cooperation were not reviewed by MESICIC.

Finally, the review of implementation and/or enforcement activities contained in this report could not be elaborated on due to the lack of information. Saint Lucia is cited by the MESICIC as providing no statistical information to assess the level of implementation of legally adopted measures. While lack of monitoring and data collection mechanisms is not solely found in Saint Lucia, the issue is worth emphasizing in order to support a more detailed and effective assessment.

Corruption Resilience

Score by indicator

Social Context

Resilient
83.4

Western Hemisphere 64.8

Caribbean 69.3

Quality of Government

Moderately Resilient
57.4

Western Hemisphere 50.6

Caribbean 51.0

Rule of Law

Resilient
70.6

Western Hemisphere 51.1

Caribbean 57.1

Business Stability

Moderately Resilient
61.5

Western Hemisphere 50.5

Caribbean 52.3

Violence & Security

Moderately Resilient
54.9

Western Hemisphere 55.0

Caribbean 59.9

Corruption Resilience score over the time

Analysis

Saint Lucia's social context indicator score dropped in 2020 by 4.53 points from the previous year. Despite the country's drop in indicator score, Saint Lucia substantially exceeds the Western Hemisphere country average of 64.89 by 18.54 points. Throughout the decade, Saint Lucia's indicator score has been consistently high among the Western Hemisphere countries and the Caribbeans. Within the Caribbean, Saint Lucia is among the three top-performing countries concerning the social context indicator. The country's score has varied over the years, and wherein 2016, it achieved its highest score of 89.09, and in 2020 it achieved its lowest score. Saint Lucia's score falls within the 75th percentile for the Western Hemisphere countries indicator scores in 2020. Saint Lucia’s social context indicator score is mainly attributed to the guaranteed and respected civil liberties and political rights within the country. In addition, the constitution guarantees freedom of expression and communication, and the media's freedom is respected within the country.

With regard to the quality of governance and institutions, Saint Lucia’s 2020 indicator score increased by 4.55 points from the previous year. The country's score has varied throughout the decade and consistently remained within the 50 and 60 range. The Western Hemisphere country indicator average was 50.63 for 2020, and Saint Lucia's score exceeded the average by 6.78 points. Saint Lucia achieved the highest indicator score of 65.76 in 2013, and its lowest score of 52.86 in 2019. Compared to its Caribbean counterparts, Saint Lucia's indicator score falls within the top percentile for the subregion. The country’s 2020 indicator score was largely attributed to issues of corruption and inadequate transparency.

Saint Lucia's rule of law indicator score for 2020 declined by a slight 0.11 points from the previous year. The Western Hemisphere country indicator average was 51.15 for 2020, and Saint Lucia's score substantially exceeded the average by 19.53 points. Saint Lucia's score began to improve in 2013, where it increased by 9.90 points from the previous year and continued to do so over the decade. The country achieved its lowest score for the indicator in 2012 with 45.10 and its highest score for the indicator in 2016 with 71.58. Saint Lucia's score is mainly attributed to the independence and effectiveness of the country, as it remains impervious to the influence of politicians and business elites.

In terms of the country’s business stability, Saint Lucia’s 2020 indicator score increased by 0.70 points from the previous year, resulting in a score of 61.56. Throughout the decade, the country’s indicator score has varied, but consistently remained within the 60-point range. Saint Lucia's score exceeds the Western Hemisphere countries average of 50.53 for 2020 by 11.03 points. The country achieved its lowest score (45.10) for the indicator in 2012 and its highest score (71.58) for the indicator in 2016. Saint Lucia's business stability score for 2020 is mainly attributed to the country’s effective legal and regulatory framework which supports business activity.

Lastly, with regard to the violence and stability indicator, Saint Lucia's 2020 score declined by 13.89 points from the previous year. The country's score falls just below the Western Hemisphere average of 55.04 by a slight 0.11 points. Between 2015 and 2016, the country achieved its highest scores of 81.59 and 90.89, respectively. Throughout the decade, the country's score has fluctuated but always remained above 50.76.