Loading...

Jamaica

Capital

Kingston

Territory

10,830km²

Population (2020)

2,961,161

GDP Total (2020)

13.81B USD

GDP Per Capita (2020)

4,665 USD

Icome Group

Upper middle income

Convention Implementation

65.1
In progress

Western Hemisphere Ranking

60.7

16th of 31 countries

Caribbean Ranking

54.7

4th of 11 countries

Corruption Resilience

58.8
Moderately Resilient

Western Hemisphere Ranking

54.4

14th of 31 countries

Caribbean Ranking

57.9

8th of 11 countries

Convention Implementation

Score by thematic sections and measures

Prevention

In progress
50.7

Western Hemisphere 46.3

Caribbean 41.7

Standards of Conduct

In progress
53.1

Western Hemisphere 42.8

Caribbean 24.8

Enforcement of Standards of Conduct

In progress
59.3

Western Hemisphere 50.6

Caribbean 33.4

Training of Public Officials

Core-deficient
31.2

Western Hemisphere 36.8

Caribbean 27.4

Asset and Conflicts of Interests Declarations

In progress
43.7

Western Hemisphere 42.3

Caribbean 27.9

Transparency in Government Contracting

In progress
43.7

Western Hemisphere 33.1

Caribbean 22.9

Elimination of Favorable Tax Treatment

In progress
47.6

Western Hemisphere 47.1

Caribbean 31.6

Oversight Bodies

Core-deficient
31.2

Western Hemisphere 36.0

Caribbean 34.3

Measures to Deter Domestic and Foreign Bribery

Core-deficient
26.5

Western Hemisphere 36.7

Caribbean 20.0

Encouraging Participation by Civil Society

In progress
71.0

Western Hemisphere 43.0

Caribbean 21.3

Study of Other Prevention Measures

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 44.9

Caribbean 42.8

Criminalization and law enforcement

In progress
70.5

Western Hemisphere 61.1

Caribbean 55.1

Protection of Those who Report Acts of Corruption

In progress
50.7

Western Hemisphere 30.7

Caribbean 17.8

Scope

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 67.7

Caribbean 53.8

Jurisdiction: Offense-in-Territory

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 74.6

Caribbean 60.0

Jurisdiction: Offense-by-National

Implemented
82.8

Western Hemisphere 51.9

Caribbean 27.3

Jurisdiction: Offender-in-Territory

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 58.8

Caribbean 39.5

Passive Public Bribery

Implemented
71.8

Western Hemisphere 55.8

Caribbean 55.8

Active Public Bribery

Implemented
71.8

Western Hemisphere 56.4

Caribbean 55.5

Abuse of Functions

In progress
53.1

Western Hemisphere 47.0

Caribbean 37.6

Money Laundering

Implemented
71.8

Western Hemisphere 55.8

Caribbean 58.5

Participation and Attempt

In progress
62.5

Western Hemisphere 58.4

Caribbean 54.2

Active Foreign Bribery

In progress
47.6

Western Hemisphere 39.0

Caribbean 34.7

Illicit Enrichment

In progress
50.7

Western Hemisphere 54.7

Caribbean 38.9

Use of State Property

Implemented
85.9

Western Hemisphere 79.5

Caribbean 66.9

Illicit Acquisition of a Benefit

Not Implemented
0

Western Hemisphere 52.1

Caribbean 36.6

Public Embezzlement

Implemented
85.9

Western Hemisphere 77.6

Caribbean 64.4

Passive Foreign Bribery

Not Implemented
0

Western Hemisphere 25.6

Caribbean 23.4

Private Bribery

Implemented
82.8

Western Hemisphere 22.7

Caribbean 21.8

Private Embezzlement

In progress
64.0

Western Hemisphere 64.7

Caribbean 59.5

Obstruction of Justice

Implemented
85.9

Western Hemisphere 71.4

Caribbean 61.1

Liability of Legal Persons

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 61.3

Caribbean 62.2

Statute of Limitations

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 79.6

Caribbean 68.

Prosecution, Adjudication and Sanctions

In progress
62.5

Western Hemisphere 69.5

Caribbean 63.2

Consequences and Compensation

In progress
50

Western Hemisphere 70.3

Caribbean 60.4

Cooperation With Law Enforcement

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 72.2

Caribbean 66.3

Asset Recovery

Implemented
82.8

Western Hemisphere 66.4

Caribbean 59.6

International cooperation

In progress
65.6

Western Hemisphere 68.9

Caribbean 60.9

Assistance Without Criminalization

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 79.8

Caribbean 69.8

Inclusion in Extradition Treaties

In progress
47.6

Western Hemisphere 55.1

Caribbean 54.5

Convention as Legal Basis for Extradition

Core-deficient
28.9

Western Hemisphere 47.5

Caribbean 31.7

Automatic Application Without Treaty

Core-deficient
28.9

Western Hemisphere 52.7

Caribbean 49.1

Prosecution Without Extradition

Not Implemented
0

Western Hemisphere 57.2

Caribbean 56.6

Custody

In progress
57.8

Western Hemisphere 73.4

Caribbean 72.8

Assistance

Implemented
78.1

Western Hemisphere 58.0

Caribbean 50.2

Impossibility of Claiming Bank Secrecy

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 84.0

Caribbean 71.3

Limited Use of Information

In progress
64.0

Western Hemisphere 82.6

Caribbean 71.1

Nature of Act

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 84.3

Caribbean 75.7

Designate Central Authorities

In progress
50

Western Hemisphere 75.9

Caribbean 53.9

Responsibilities of Central Authorities

Implemented
71.8

Western Hemisphere 71.5

Caribbean 67.1

Communication Between Central Authorities

Implemented
71.8

Western Hemisphere 67.3

Caribbean 50.8

Special Investigative Techniques

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 56.9

Caribbean 48.5

Technical Cooperation

Implemented
85.9

Western Hemisphere 62.8

Caribbean 40.7

Anti-corruption conventions timeline

199619971998199920002001200220032004200520062007200820092010201120122013201420152016201720182019

Conventions

  • IACAC - Inter-American Convention Against Corruption
  • UNCAC - United Nations Convention against Corruption
  • OECD Anti-Bribery Convention

Key events

  • Signed
  • Ratifed / acceded
  • Review rounds

Convention Implementation Analysis

Jamaica signed the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC) on March 29, 1996, and ratified it on March 16, 2001. It is a State Party to the Follow-Up Mechanism for the Implementation of the Inter-American Convention against Corruption (MESICIC) since June 4, 2002. The country also signed the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) on September 16, 2005, and subsequently ratified it on March 5, 2008. Accordingly, Jamaica has undergone five rounds of review under MESICIC, and one round of review under the UNCAC review mechanism.

Jamaica’s record in implementing its commitments to IACAC and UNCAC exhibits a number of successes and a few failures. With an overall score of 65.1, the measures adopted place the country at the middle point of compliance with international norms, surrounded by Bolivia (62.7), Panama (63.5), Ecuador (65.1), and Uruguay (66.1). However, progress in implementation is somewhat unequally distributed. The country achieves higher success in regard to criminalization and international cooperation while half of all deficient and unimplemented measures are found in regard to prevention. That being said, three quarters of all measures evaluated here receive a score of 50 or above—a degree of progress that reflects the overall state of the country’s performance.

The prevention of corruption is undergoing, classified as “in progress” by its average score and with prominent measures given a score of 50 or above—the adoption of standards of conduct (53.1) and their enforcement (59.4), and the initiatives to encourage the participation of civil society (71.1). The study of preventive measures related to equitable compensation is considered to be fully implemented. On the other hand, half of all measures within this section fail to achieve sufficient progress—the actions to deter domestic and foreign bribery related to accounting regulations (26.6), the training of public officials (31.3), the state of oversight bodies (31.3) and—to a lesser degree—the systems for registering asset and conflict of interests' declarations and transparency in government contracting (both of which receive an encouraging score of 43.8), among others.

In terms of criminalization and law enforcement, Jamaica shows better results than those regarding prevention—and slightly better than those for international cooperation, as well. In fact, only three measures within this section receive a score below 50 and one of them is classified as “in progress”. The country is found to have successfully implemented a number of significant commitments, including those pertaining to embezzlement in the public sector, bribery in the private sector, and the liability of legal persons (the latter two required by UNCAC), among others. On the other hand, only two measures are found fully unimplemented: the criminalization of the illicit acquisition of a benefit (i.e., influence trading) and the passive bribery of foreign officials. Other important measures, such as the criminalization of active bribery of foreign officials (47.7), illicit enrichment (50.8) and abuse of functions (53.1), as well as the efforts to protect those who report acts of corruption (i.e., whistleblowing protection) (50.8) remain clearly in progress. Regarding the above-mentioned state of regulations addressing foreign bribery, the country’s efforts are found to be in progress due to limitations in their legal features and unreported results. According to the UNCAC review mechanism, “[a]ctive bribery of foreign public officials is criminalized… but does not include officials of public international organizations.”

Finally, Jamaica is found largely compliant in its commitments to establish jurisdiction over the offenses covered by the conventions, including those that have been committed inside its territory, committed by a national, or when the offender is present in its territory, among other required forms. However, the UNCAC review mechanism reports that Jamaica’s jurisdiction “does not include offenses… relating to bribery in the private sector,” which is all the more relevant given that the country has otherwise successfully criminalized bribery in the private sector (as mentioned in the previous paragraph). Furthermore, it is also highlighted that “Jamaica does not take [UNCAC] as legal basis for cooperation on extradition and only uses bilateral treaties or the London Scheme applicable to Commonwealth States.” That being said, the overall level of implementation the country’s commitments regarding international cooperation is found to be in progress, with an average section score of 65.7.

Corruption Resilience

Score by indicator

Social Context

Resilient
77.0

Western Hemisphere 64.8

Caribbean 69.3

Quality of Government

Moderately Resilient
57.3

Western Hemisphere 50.6

Caribbean 51.0

Rule of Law

Moderately Resilient
58.5

Western Hemisphere 51.1

Caribbean 57.1

Business Stability

Moderately Resilient
62.4

Western Hemisphere 50.5

Caribbean 52.3

Violence & Security

Vulnerable
38.7

Western Hemisphere 55.0

Caribbean 59.9

Corruption Resilience score over the time

Analysis

Jamaica’s social context indicator for 2020 was 77.08, an increase of 2.68 points from the previous year. The country's social context indicator is 12.19 points above the Western Hemisphere average of 64.89, grouping Jamaica's score within the top percentile for the region. Since 2010, Jamaica has experienced an increase in its social context score and has recorded consistently high levels of political rights, civil liberties, and media freedom, which are respected, guaranteed, and backed by the country’s constitution. In 2020, Reporters Without Borders noted the country is among the safest for journalists, particularly when compared to its regional counterparts.

The quality of government indicators, in 2020, saw an increase of 1.23 points from the previous year. Jamaica’s current score of 57.39 exceeds the regional average by 6.79 points. However, the country still ranks below the top-performing countries in the region. Between 2010 and 2020, Jamaica's score has remained constant within a range of 5.41 points, where its score did not have any significant changes. Despite the country’s consistent scores, Jamaica’s quality of government indicator continues to be influenced by high levels of corruption within the country.

In 2020, Jamaica had a marginal increase of 0.55 points in the rule of law indicator, 7.41 points above the regional average of 51.15. Over the decade, the country's rule of law has varied but always remained above the regional average. The constitution protects and ensures judicial independence from political interference, particularly within the higher levels of the judiciary. Despite the independence of the court, widespread corruption continues to pose problems within the lower courts.

With regard to the business stability indicator, Jamaica’s 2020 score decreased by 0.95 points from the previous year, resulting in a score of 62.44. The country’s business stability indicator falls within the top percentile for the region and is primarily attributed to an effective business regulatory system, protected property rights, and rule-based governance relating to economic activity.

The 2020 violence and security indicators for Jamaica was 38.75, which decreased from the preceding year by 2.64 points. Across this indicator, Jamaica’s scores rank within the lower percentile for the Western Hemisphere region. The country's indicator score is primarily influenced by the presence of violent crime and crime resulting from drug trafficking networks. The country also struggles with high rates of homicide, reporting 46.5 homicides per 100 000 inhabitants in 2020.