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Dominica

Capital

Roseau

Territory

750km²

Population (2020)

71,991

GDP Total (2020)

469.9M USD

GDP Per Capita (2020)

6,527 USD

Icome Group

Upper middle income

Convention Implementation

38.4
Core-deficient

Western Hemisphere Ranking

60.7

29th of 31 countries

Caribbean Ranking

54.7

10th of 11 countries

Corruption Resilience

61.5
Moderately Resilient

Western Hemisphere Ranking

54.4

9th of 31 countries

Caribbean Ranking

57.9

6th of 11 countries

Convention Implementation

Score by thematic sections and measures

Prevention

Core-deficient
40.6

Western Hemisphere 46.3

Caribbean 41.7

Standards of Conduct

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 42.8

Caribbean 24.8

Enforcement of Standards of Conduct

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 50.6

Caribbean 33.4

Training of Public Officials

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 36.8

Caribbean 27.4

Asset and Conflicts of Interests Declarations

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 42.3

Caribbean 27.9

Transparency in Government Contracting

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 33.1

Caribbean 22.9

Elimination of Favorable Tax Treatment

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 47.1

Caribbean 31.6

Oversight Bodies

Core-deficient
40.6

Western Hemisphere 36.0

Caribbean 34.3

Measures to Deter Domestic and Foreign Bribery

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 36.7

Caribbean 20.0

Encouraging Participation by Civil Society

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 43.0

Caribbean 21.3

Study of Other Prevention Measures

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 44.9

Caribbean 42.8

Criminalization and law enforcement

Core-deficient
26.6

Western Hemisphere 61.1

Caribbean 55.1

Protection of Those who Report Acts of Corruption

Not Implemented
3.1

Western Hemisphere 30.7

Caribbean 17.8

Scope

Not Implemented
6.2

Western Hemisphere 67.7

Caribbean 53.8

Jurisdiction: Offense-in-Territory

Not Implemented
6.2

Western Hemisphere 74.6

Caribbean 60.0

Jurisdiction: Offense-by-National

Not Implemented
6.2

Western Hemisphere 51.9

Caribbean 27.3

Jurisdiction: Offender-in-Territory

Not Implemented
6.2

Western Hemisphere 58.8

Caribbean 39.5

Passive Public Bribery

Core-deficient
40.6

Western Hemisphere 55.8

Caribbean 55.8

Active Public Bribery

Core-deficient
33.5

Western Hemisphere 56.4

Caribbean 55.5

Abuse of Functions

Not Implemented
0

Western Hemisphere 47.0

Caribbean 37.6

Money Laundering

In progress
47.6

Western Hemisphere 55.8

Caribbean 58.5

Participation and Attempt

In progress
47.6

Western Hemisphere 58.4

Caribbean 54.2

Active Foreign Bribery

Not Implemented
0

Western Hemisphere 39.0

Caribbean 34.7

Illicit Enrichment

In progress
57.8

Western Hemisphere 54.7

Caribbean 38.9

Use of State Property

Core-deficient
35.9

Western Hemisphere 79.5

Caribbean 66.9

Illicit Acquisition of a Benefit

Core-deficient
33.5

Western Hemisphere 52.1

Caribbean 36.6

Public Embezzlement

Core-deficient
35.9

Western Hemisphere 77.6

Caribbean 64.4

Passive Foreign Bribery

Not Implemented
0

Western Hemisphere 25.6

Caribbean 23.4

Private Bribery

Core-deficient
14.8

Western Hemisphere 22.7

Caribbean 21.8

Private Embezzlement

Core-deficient
35.9

Western Hemisphere 64.7

Caribbean 59.5

Obstruction of Justice

Core-deficient
14.8

Western Hemisphere 71.4

Caribbean 61.1

Liability of Legal Persons

In progress
47.6

Western Hemisphere 61.3

Caribbean 62.2

Statute of Limitations

In progress
47.6

Western Hemisphere 79.6

Caribbean 68.

Prosecution, Adjudication and Sanctions

Core-deficient
28.9

Western Hemisphere 69.5

Caribbean 63.2

Consequences and Compensation

Core-deficient
28.9

Western Hemisphere 70.3

Caribbean 60.4

Cooperation With Law Enforcement

In progress
57.8

Western Hemisphere 72.2

Caribbean 66.3

Asset Recovery

Core-deficient
28.9

Western Hemisphere 66.4

Caribbean 59.6

International cooperation

In progress
60.9

Western Hemisphere 68.9

Caribbean 60.9

Assistance Without Criminalization

Implemented
78.1

Western Hemisphere 79.8

Caribbean 69.8

Inclusion in Extradition Treaties

Core-deficient
40.6

Western Hemisphere 55.1

Caribbean 54.5

Convention as Legal Basis for Extradition

Not Implemented
0

Western Hemisphere 47.5

Caribbean 31.7

Automatic Application Without Treaty

Core-deficient
40.6

Western Hemisphere 52.7

Caribbean 49.1

Prosecution Without Extradition

In progress
57.8

Western Hemisphere 57.2

Caribbean 56.6

Custody

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 73.4

Caribbean 72.8

Assistance

In progress
67.1

Western Hemisphere 58.0

Caribbean 50.2

Impossibility of Claiming Bank Secrecy

In progress
57.8

Western Hemisphere 84.0

Caribbean 71.3

Limited Use of Information

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 82.6

Caribbean 71.1

Nature of Act

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 84.3

Caribbean 75.7

Designate Central Authorities

In progress
50

Western Hemisphere 75.9

Caribbean 53.9

Responsibilities of Central Authorities

Implemented
100

Western Hemisphere 71.5

Caribbean 67.1

Communication Between Central Authorities

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 67.3

Caribbean 50.8

Special Investigative Techniques

Not Implemented
0

Western Hemisphere 56.9

Caribbean 48.5

Technical Cooperation

N/A
Not applicable

Western Hemisphere 62.8

Caribbean 40.7

Anti-corruption conventions timeline

20042005200620072008200920102011201220132014201520162017

Conventions

  • IACAC - Inter-American Convention Against Corruption
  • UNCAC - United Nations Convention against Corruption
  • OECD Anti-Bribery Convention

Key events

  • Signed
  • Ratifed / acceded
  • Review rounds

Convention Implementation Analysis

Dominica ratified the Inter-American Convention Against Corruption (IACAC) on September 14, 2004. It is a State Party to the Follow-Up Mechanism for the Implementation of the Inter-American Convention against Corruption (MESICIC) since March 16, 2018. The country also acceded to the United Nations Convention Against Corruption (UNCAC) on May 28, 2010. Accordingly, Dominica has undergone one round of review under the UNCAC review mechanism.

Dominica’s record in implementing its commitments to UNCAC exhibits very few successes and a large number of failures. With an overall score of 38.4, the measures adopted place the country towards the bottom level of compliance with international norms, surrounded by Saint Lucia (30.9), Suriname (31.7), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (46.7), and Guyana (49.1). Furthermore, progress in implementation is unequally distributed. Although a number of measures related to criminalization and law enforcement show progress, all the measures found to be implemented belong to the international cooperation section, which results in a score more than double that received by criminalization.

Regarding the prevention of corruption, the country’s absence from the MESICIC until 2018 does not allow for the assessment of most preventive measures, as the implementation of its commitments to the IACAC have not undergone review prior to 2021 and preventive measures are not covered by the UNCAC review mechanism during its first round. The sole exception is the state of oversight bodies, for which Dominica receives a score of 40.6 (“core-deficient”) reflecting that “no agency has been designated to handle coordination” and that the country is called to “[a]llocate the human resources necessary for the effective execution of the work of both the Integrity Commission and the Director of Public Prosecutions, and develop local capabilities for officers of the Commission, the Director of Public Prosecutions and the Financial Intelligence Unit.” However, no other information is available.

In terms of criminalization and law enforcement, Dominica shows poor results. Significant deficiencies remain, with two thirds of all measures within this section classified as core-deficient or unimplemented. Only two measures in progress receive a score above 50—the criminalization of illicit enrichment (57.8), and the legal mechanisms to facilitate cooperation with law enforcement (e.g., plea bargain) (57.8). Significant measures are found largely or fully unimplemented, including the protection of those who report acts of corruption (i.e., whistleblower protection) as well as the criminalization of abuse of functions and active and passive bribery of foreign officials. Other measures remain deficient at core, such as the criminalization of private bribery (14.8), obstruction of justice (14.8), active and passive bribery in the public sector (33.6 and 40.6, respectively), illicit acquisition of a benefit (i.e., influence trading) (33.6), embezzlement in the private sector (35.9), and others.

Among the severe problems identified in connection with criminalization and law enforcement, the country’s limited jurisdiction over the offenses covered by the conventions deserves special attention, as Dominica has not established jurisdiction over offenses committed inside its territory, committed by a national, or when the offender is present in its territory, among other required forms. The UNCAC review mechanism briefly reports that “[t]he Integrity in Public Office Act and Criminal Procedure Act do not address the issue of jurisdiction. There are rules on jurisdiction in the Money Laundering (Prevention) Act, but they do not cover acts of participation in the predicate offenses of money-laundering committed abroad.” Dominica’s record in promoting and engaging with international cooperation is also lackluster, yet it receives a general classification of “in progress”. Among the bigger issues reported are the findings that the country does not recognize UNCAC as a legal basis for extradition, requires dual criminality, and only considers bribery, embezzlement, and money-laundering as extraditable offenses.

Corruption Resilience

Score by indicator

Social Context

Resilient
84.9

Western Hemisphere 64.8

Caribbean 69.3

Quality of Government

Moderately Resilient
51.2

Western Hemisphere 50.6

Caribbean 51.0

Rule of Law

Moderately Resilient
68.8

Western Hemisphere 51.1

Caribbean 57.1

Business Stability

Moderately Resilient
57.5

Western Hemisphere 50.5

Caribbean 52.3

Violence & Security

Vulnerable
44.9

Western Hemisphere 55.0

Caribbean 59.9

Corruption Resilience score over the time

Analysis

Despite a slight decrease between 2019 and 2020, Dominica’s current social context score (84.74) substantially exceeds the Western Hemisphere average and ranks the country within the 75th percentile. Over the last ten years, the highest indicator score achieved was 88.63 in 2010 and its lowest score of 71.20 was measured in 2015. Throughout the decade, Dominica’s social context score has been consistently high compared to its regional counterparts, and this is largely the result of respected—and guaranteed—political rights and civil liberties. In terms of media freedom, within Dominica, the media is independent and constitutionally protected.

With respect to the quality of government indicators, Dominica’s current score (51.23) increased by 10.33 points from the previous year, however it remains just above the Western Hemisphere average of 50.63. Since 2010, the country's quality of government indicator has been declining, achieving its lowest score of 40.90 in 2019.

Across the rule of law indicators, Dominica’s 2020 score (68.84) exceeded the Western Hemisphere average (51.15) by 17.69 points and ranked within the 75th percentile for the region. Since 2010, the country’s scores have been steadily increasing. Most notably, there has been a 15.5-point increase between the indicator scores for 2010 and 2020. Dominica’s current score was largely influenced by the country’s independent judiciary which is safeguarded by constitutional protections. Unlike many of its regional counterparts, the courts are relatively resistant to political pressure and corruption.

In terms of the business stability indicator, Dominica has fluctuated between their highest score of 64.79 in 2010 and their lowest score of 56.44 which was recorded in 2017. Over the last decade, the country’s business stability score has been steadily declining. Dominica’s business stability score faced another marginal decrease (of 0.11 points) between 2019 and 2020, resulting in a current score of 57.53. The country’s score is largely attributed to inefficiencies in regulations and policies. In 2020, Dominica was cited as one of several countries with the lowest rates of property registration in the World Bank’s Doing Business Survey.

With regard to the violence and security indicator, Dominica’s score increased by 14.60 points from the previous year. However, despite this increase, Dominica’s indicator score (44.95) remains within the 25th percentile for the Western Hemisphere and falls 10.09 points below the regional average. While Dominica’s indicator score fluctuated between its highest score of 59.99 in 2014 and its lowest score of 25.44 in 2011, the country never retained an optimal score compared to its better-performing neighbors.